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Il salmone reale, Oncorhynchus tshawitscha (Walbaum, 1792)


 

Nomi comuni esteri - Spagnolo - Salmón boquinegra, Salmon chinook, Salmón chinook, Salmón real, Salmón rey. Portoghese - Salmao-real, Salmão-real. Francese - Saumon chinook, Saumon royal. Inglese - King salmon, Chinook, Chinook salmon, Blackmouth, Quinnat salmon. Tedesco - Königslachs, Quinnat. Olanda - Chinook zalm. Danimarca - Kongelaks. Svezia - Kungslax. Norvegia - Chinook. Finlandia - Kuningaslohi. Polonia - Czawycza. Russia - Chavycha. Giappone - Masunosuke.

 

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Salmo tshawytscha Walbaum, 1792. Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium. In quibus systema totum ichthyologiae proponitur cum classibus, ordinibus, generum characteribus, specierum differentiis, observationibus plurimis. Redactis speciebus 242 ad genera 52. Ichthyologiae pars III. Ant. Ferdin. Rose, Grypeswaldiae [Greifswald]. Artedi Piscium [i-viii] + 1-723; Pt. 3 71. Status: nomenclatura originaria, non valida. Opinioni: nomenclatura valida come "Salmo tshawytscha" Walbaum 1792, per Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:204; nomenclatura valida come "Oncorhynchus tshawytscha" (Walbaum 1792), secondo Berg 1948:188 come "tschawytscha", Okada 1961:309, Lee et al. 1980:91, Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:77, Cadwallader & Backhouse 1983:156, Ida in Masuda et al. 1984:40, Smith 1986:224, Scott & Scott 1988:120, Paxton et al. 1989:164, Pequeño 1989:28 come "tschawytscha", Paulin et al. 1989:91, McAllister 1990:85, Tomelleri & Eberle 1990:47, Page & Burr 1991:52, Stearley & Smith 1993:22, La Rivers 1994:247, Davies & McDowall in McDowall 1996:89, Chereshnev 1996:604 come "tschawytscha", Kubota & Tsukada 1996:56, Zolotukhin 1997:270 come "tschawytscha", Reshetnikov et al. 1997:729 come "tschawytscha", Thurow et al. 1997:1094, Dorofeeva & Savvaitova 1998:33, De la Cruz-Agüero 1999:77, Fuller et al. 1999:250, Dyer 2000:89 come "tschawytscha", Lyons et al. 2000:51, Nakabo 2000:303 come "tschawytscha", Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:20 come "tschawytscha", Bogutskaya et al. 2001:45 come "tschawytscha", Chereshnev et al. 2001:86 come "tschawytscha", Pietsch et al. 2001:143, Allen et al. 2002:358, Mecklenburg et al. 2002:207, Nakabo 2002:303, Moyle 2002:251, Fedorov et al. 2003:38 come "tschawytscha", Wydoski & Whitney 2003:81, Nelson et al. 2004:86, Bailey et al. 2004:152, Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:153. Spesso scritto "tschawytscha". Località tipo: Kamchatka, Russia. Tipo: non è noto nessun esemplare tipo.

Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum, 1792). Artedi Piscium Pt. 3 71. Status: nuova nomenclatura, valida.

Oncorhynchus tshawytsha (Walbaum, 1792). Artedi Piscium Pt. 3 71. Status: errore di scrittura, nomenclatura non valida.

Salmo tschawytscha Walbaum, 1792. Artedi Piscium Pt. 3 71. Status: errore di scrittura, nomenclatura non valida.

Oncorhynchus tschawytscha (Walbaum, 1792). Artedi Piscium Pt. 3 71. Status: errore di scrittura, nomenclatura non valida.

Salmo tschawytscha Bloch & Schneider 1801. M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae iconibus cx illustratum. Post obitum auctoris opus inchoatum absolvit, correxit, interpolavit Jo. Gottlob Schneider, Saxo. Berolini. Sumtibus Auctoris Impressum et Bibliopolio Sanderiano Commissum. Systema Ichthyol. i-lx + 1-584; 407. Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida. Oggettivo sinonimo di "Oncorhynchus tshawytscha" (Walbaum 1792). Apparentemente descritto indipendentemente da Walbaum 1792, ma fondata sulle stesse fonti. Località tipo Kamchatka, Russia.

Salmo orientalis Pallas, 1814. Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica, sistens omnium animalium in extenso Imperio Rossico et adjacentibus maribus observatorum recensionem, domicilia, mores et descriptiones anatomen atque icones plurimorum. 3 vols. [1811-1814]. Petropoli. Zool. Rosso-Asiatica i-vii + 1-428 + index (I-CXXV); v. 3 367. Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida. Opinioni: sinonimo di "Oncorhynchus tshawytscha" (Walbaum 1792), per Berg 1948:188, Okada 1961:309, La Rivers 1994:247, Dorofeeva & Savvaitova 1998:33. Località tipo: Kamchatka, Russia. Tipo: nessuno. Sintipi e/o Pallas specimen: NMW 91248 (1, secco), ZMB 23562 (1, secco).

Salmo quinnat Richardson, 1836. The Fish. In: Fauna Boreali-Americana; or the zoology of the northern parts of British America: containing descriptions of the objects of natural history collected on the late northern land expeditions, under the command of Sir John Franklin, R.N. Fauna Boreali-Americana i-xv + 1-327; Part 3 219. Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida. Opinioni: sinonimo di "Oncorhynchus tshawytscha" (Walbaum 1792), per Berg 1948:188, Okada 1961:309, La Rivers 1994:247, Scott & Crossman 1998:177. Località tipo: fiume Columbia, Nord America. Tipo: non è noto nessun esemplare tipo.

Salmo cooperi Suckley, 1861. Notices of certain new species of North American Salmonidae, chiefly in the collection of the N. W. Boundary Commission, in charge of Archibald Campbell, Esq., Commissioner of the United States, collected by Doctor C. B. R. Kennerly, naturalist to the... Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist. N. Y. 306-313; v. 7 (art. 30) 311. Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida. Opinioni: sinonimo di "Oncorhynchus tshawytscha" (Walbaum 1792), per La Rivers 1994:247, Scott & Crossman 1998:177. Località tipo: fiume Columbia e fiume Okanakani, Nord America. Tipo: nessuno. Sintipi: (molti) USNM 3642 (1, perduto), 3643 (1).

Oncorhynchus cooperi (Suckley, 1861). Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist. N. Y. v. 7 (art. 30) 311. Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida, vedere sopra.

Salmo warreni Suckley, 1861. Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist. N. Y. v. 7 (art. 30) 308. Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida. Opinioni: sinonimo di "Oncorhynchus nerka" (Walbaum 1792), per Okada 1961:301; sinonimo di "Oncorhynchus tshawytscha" (Walbaum 1792), secondo La Rivers 1994:247, Scott & Crossman 1998:177. Località tipo: fiume Fraser, British Columbia, Canada. Tipo: nessuno. Sintipi: USNM 2070 (1), 2073 (1).

Oncorhynchus chouicha Jordan & Gilbert, 1883. Synopsis of the fishes of North America. Bull. U. S. Natl. Mus. i-liv + 1-1018; No. 16 306. Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida. emendamento non giustificato di S. tshawytscha Walbaum 1792. Opinioni: sinonimo di "Oncorhynchus tshawytscha" (Walbaum 1792), per Berg 1948:188, Okada 1961:309).

 

 

Fonti bibliografiche principali - Page & Burr, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. Pagina 52.

 

 

Distribuzione originaria di Oncorhynchus tshawitscha secondo Fishbase

 

 

L'areale originario della specie è il Mar Glaciale Artico e l'Oceano Pacifico settentrionale. Dai bacini fluviali di Point Hope, Alaska al fiume Ventura in California; occasionalmente giunge a sud fino a San Diego. Diffusa anche a Honshu, in Giappone, Mare del Giappone, Mare di Bering e Mare di Okhotsk. Segnalata anche nel fiume Coppermine nell'Artico. Introdotta, con acclimatazione, in Francia, Nuova Zelanda, Cile ed Argentina. Tentativi di acclimatazione sono  e sono stati tentati in Germania, Olanda, Danimarca e Finlandia, probabilmente anche in Russia.

 

 

Introduzioni di Oncorhynchus tshawitscha
Periodo Provenienza Paese ospite Acclimatazione

non conosciuto

USA

Gran Bretagna

no

non conosciuto

USA

Irlanda

no

non conosciuto

USA

Italia

no

non conosciuto

ignota

Messico

ignota

non conosciuto

ignota

Nicaragua

ignota

1890 - 1899

ignota

Germania

no

1876

California (USA)

Hawaii

no

1876

USA

Nuova Zelanda

si

1877

Nuova Zelanda

Australia

si

1877

USA

Australia

si

1877

USA

Francia

probabile

1877

USA

Olanda

no

1881

USA

Giappone

no

1897

Germania

Danimarca

no

1900

USA

Cile

si

1904

USA

Argentina

si

1930

USA

Finlandia

no

1955

ignota

Madagascar

no

 

 

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