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La trota iridea o arcobaleno,

Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792)


 

Nomi dialettali italiani - Veneto tridentino - Truta rossa. Veneto - Trota rosata. Piemonte - Truta iridi.

 

 

Nomi comuni esteri - Spagnolo - Trucha arco iris, Cabeza de acero. Portoghese - Truta-arco-iris, Truta-arco-íris. Francese - Truite arc en ciel, Truite arc-en-ciel. Greco - Amerikaniki Pestrofa. Inglese - Rainbow trout, Steelhead, Steelhead trout, Baiser, Coast angel trout, Coast rainbow trout, Hardhead, Kamchatka steelhead, Kamloops trout, Redband, Salmon trout, Silver trout. Tedesco - Amerikanische regenbogenforelle, Lachsforelle, Regenbogenforelle, Stahlkopfforelle. Olanda - Regenboogforel. Danimarca - Regnbueørred, Stålhovedørred, Kamchatka-laks, Kamchatka-ørred. Svezia - Regnbåge, Regnbågslax. Norvegia - Regnbueørret, Aure, Orret. Islanda - Regnbogasilungur, Urriöi. Finlandia - Kirjolohi. Polonia - Pstrag teczowy. Repubblica Ceca - Pstruh duhový. Repubblica Slovacca - Pstruh dúhový. Romania - Pastrav curcubeu, Păstrăv curcubeu. Bulgaria - Dagova pastarva. Russia - Forel raduzhnaya, Kamchatskaya semga, Mikizha. Slovenia - Sarenka. Albania - Trofta ylberi, Trofte ylberi. Turchia - Alabalik, Alabalik türü, Gokkusagi. Giappone - Masu, Nijimasu. Iran - Ghezelalla-e-Rangin Kaman, Mahi Qezel Ala, Qezel Ala, Qezel Ala Ranginkaman.

 

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Salmo mykiss Walbaum, 1792. Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium. In quibus systema totum ichthyologiae proponitur cum classibus, ordinibus, generum characteribus, specierum differentiis, observationibus plurimis. Redactis speciebus 242 ad genera 52. Ichthyologiae pars III. Ant. Ferdin. Rose, Grypeswaldiae [Greifswald]. Artedi Piscium [i-viii] + 1-723; Pt. 3 59. Status: nomenclatura originaria, non valida. Opinioni: nomenclatura valida come "Oncorhynchus mykiss" (Walbaum 1792), sottospecie "mykiss", per Stearley & Smith 1993:21, Miller 2005:17; nomenclatura valida come "Salmo mykiss" Walbaum 1792, per Berg 1948:267, Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:152; nomenclatura valida come "Parasalmo mykiss" (Walbaum 1792), per Chereshnev 1996:604, Reshetnikov et al. 1997:729, Zolotukhin & Romanov 1998:418, Dorofeeva & Savvaitova 1998:34, Fricke 1999:87, Keith et al. 1999:80, Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:20, Bogutskaya et al. 2001:46, Chereshnev et al. 2001:88, Kuzishchin et al. 2002:751, Fedorov et al. 2003:40, Alekseyev et al. 2004:48, Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:154; nomenclatura valida come "Oncorhynchus mykiss" (Walbaum 1792), secondo Tomelleri & Eberle 1990:49, Page & Burr 1991:54, Pethiyagoda 1991:169, Coad 1991:20, Boschung 1992:68, Behnke 1992:161, Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:30, Etnier & Starnes 1993:346, Swift et al. 1993:109, Skelton 1993:263, Gomon et al. 1994:230, Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:584, Poll & Gosse 1995:101, Coad 1995:25, Baxter & Stone 1995:180, Stauffer et al. 1995:235, Cross & Collins 1995:168, Mrakovcic et al. 1995:183, Davies & McDowall in McDowall 1996:87, Andersen & Deacon 1996:126, Coad 1996:85, Chilcott & Humphries 1996:145, Mettee et al. 1996:423, Kottelat 1997:124, Murdy et al. 1997:101, Kim 1997:515, Sigler & Sigler 1996:177, Morgan et al. 1998:39, De la Cruz-Agüero 1999:77, Fuller et al. 1999:250, Dyer 2000:89, Lyons et al. 2000:48, Nakabo 2000:299, Rafique 2000:323, Azeroual et al. 2000:20, Matsuura et al. 2000:29, Pietsch et al. 2001:143, Hutchins 2001:18, Gabrielyan 2001:25, Ross et al. 2001:339, Bianco & Ketmaier 2001:200, Skelton 2001:263, Kim & Park 2002:286, Kocik & Friedland in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:173, Allen et al. 2002:357, Nakabo 2002:299, Mecklenburg et al. 2002:204, Youn 2002:194, 531, Moyle 2002:271, Mirza 2003:3, López et al. 2003:67, Jang et al. 2003:119, Wydoski & Whitney 2003:73 con autore Richardson, Hanel 2003:58, Seegers et al. 2003:39, Nelson et al. 2004:86, Bailey et al. 2004:151, Miller & Robison 2004:256, Boschung & Mayden 2004:352, Snoeks 2004:21, Hammer & Walker 2004:91, Menni 2004:85, Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:164, Mundy 2005:162. Località tipo: Kamchatka, Russia. Tipo: non è noto nessun esemplare tipo.

Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792). Artedi Piscium Pt. 3 59. Status: nuova nomenclatura, valida.

Onchorynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792). Artedi Piscium Pt. 3 59. Status: nuova nomenclatura, non valida.

Oncorhynchus myskis (Walbaum, 1792). Artedi Piscium Pt. 3 59. Status: errore di scrittura, nomenclatura non valida.

Parasalmo mykiss (Walbaum, 1792). Artedi Piscium Pt. 3 59. Status: nuova nomenclatura, non valida.

Onchorrhychus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792). Artedi Piscium Pt. 3 59. Status: errore di scrittura, nomenclatura non valida.

Salmo penshinensis Pallas, 1814. Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica, sistens omnium animalium in extenso Imperio Rossico et adjacentibus maribus observatorum recensionem, domicilia, mores et descriptiones anatomen atque icones plurimorum. 3 vols. [1811-1814]. Petropoli. Zool. Rosso-Asiatica i-vii + 1-428 + index (I-CXXV); v. 3 381. Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida. Opinioni: nomenclatura valida come "Salmo penshinensis" Pallas 1814, per Berg 1948:261; sinonimo di "Oncorhynchus mykiss" (Walbaum 1792), secondo Behnke 1992:204; nomenclatura valida come "Parasalmo mykiss" (Walbaum 1792), per Chereshnev 1996:604, Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:20, Bogutskaya et al. 2001:46, Chereshnev et al. 2001:89, Fedorov et al. 2003:40, Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:155; sinonimo di "Parasalmo mykiss" (Walbaum 1792), secondo Dorofeeva & Savvaitova 1998:34; nomenclatura valida come "Oncorhynchus penshinensis" (Pallas 1814), secondo vari autori. Gli autori occidentali generalmente non riconoscono il genere "Parasalmo". Località tipo: Golfo di Penshine, fiume Norofskuja, Russia. Tipo: ZMB 23559 (secco).

Parasalmo penshinensis (Pallas, 1814). Zool. Rosso-Asiatica v. 3 381. In Chereshnev, 1996. Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida, vedere sopra.

Salmo purpuratus Pallas 1814. Zool. Rosso-Asiatica v. 3 374. Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida. Opinioni: sinonimo di "Salmo mykiss" Walbaum 1792, per Berg 1948:267; sinonimo di "Oncorhynchus mykiss" (Walbaum 1792), secondo molti autori; sinonimo di "Parasalmo mykiss" (Walbaum 1792), secondo Dorofeeva & Savvaitova 1998:34, Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:20. Località tipo: fiume Bolschaja, fiume Bystraja, Russia. Tipo: nessuno. Sintipi: ZMB 23549 (1, secco), 23554 (1, secco).

Salmo gairdnerii Richardson, 1836. The Fish. In: Fauna Boreali-Americana; or the zoology of the northern parts of British America: containing descriptions of the objects of natural history collected on the late northern land expeditions, under the command of Sir John Franklin, R.N. Fauna Boreali-Americana i-xv + 1-327; Part 3 221. Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida. Opinioni: nomenclatura valida come "Salmo gairdnerii" Richardson 1836 [spesso scritta "gairdneri"], per Lee et al. 1980:106, Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:78, Cadwallader & Backhouse 1983:154, Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:37, Wang 1984:106, Robins & Ray 1986:76, Smith 1986:223, Robison & Buchanan 1988:124, Scott & Scott 1988:120 come "gairdneri", Paxton et al. 1989:164, Pequeño 1989:28, Paulin et al. 1989:91 as "gairdneri", McAllister 1990:84, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:719, La Rivers 1994:300, Zhu 1995:10, 203, Haro et al. 1996:6, Cheng & Zhou 1997:85 come "gairdneri", Scott & Crossman 1998:184, Raju Thomas et al. 1999:200, Wang et al. 2001:64 come "gairdneri"; sinonimo di "Oncorhynchus mykiss" (Walbaum 1792), ma valida sottospecie, per Behnke 1992:175 come "gairdneri", Stearley & Smith 1993:21 come "gairdneri", Thurow et al. 1997:1094, Fuller et al. 1999:250; nomenclatura valida come "Parasalmo gairdneri" (Richardson 1836), per Chereshnev 1996:604; sinonimo di "Parasalmo mykiss" (Walbaum 1792), per Dorofeeva & Savvaitova 1998:34, Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:20; sinonimo di "Oncorhynchus mykiss" (Walbaum 1792), secondo Mecklenburg et al. 2002:204, Mundy 2005:162. Località tipo: fiume Columbia, U.S.A. Tipo: non è noto nessun esemplare tipo.

Salmo gairdneri Richardson, 1836. Fauna Boreali-Americana Part 3 221. Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida, vedere sopra.

Fario gairdneri (Richardson, 1836). Fauna Boreali-Americana Part 3 221. Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida, vedere sopra.

Salmo gairdnerii gairdnerii Richardson, 1836. Fauna Boreali-Americana Part 3 221. Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida, vedere sopra.

Salmo iridea Gibbons, 1855. [Description of a new trout.] The Pacific [2] col. 6; v. 4 (no. 17) col. 6. Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida. Opinioni: nomenclatura valida come "Salmo irideus" Gibbons 1855, per Okada 1961:724; sinonimo di "Salmo gairdnerii" Richardson 1836, secondo Cadwallader & Backhouse 1983:215, Smith 1986:228, Scott & Crossman 1998:191 come "gairdneri"; sinonimo di "Salmo gairdnerii" (Richardson 1836), valida sottospecie "iridius", per Pequeño 1989:29, La Rivers 1994:306, Raju Thomas et al. 2002:50 come "irredius"; sinonimo di "Oncorhynchus mykiss" (Walbaum 1792), ma valida sottospecie, secondo Behnke 1992:191, Stearley & Smith 1993:21, Thurow et al. 1997:1094, Fuller et al. 1999:250, Moyle 2002:272; sinonimo di "Oncorhynchus mykiss" (Walbaum 1792), per Sigler & Sigler 1996:177, Mecklenburg et al. 2002:204; sinonimo di "Parasalmo mykiss" (Walbaum 1792), per Dorofeeva & Savvaitova 1998:34. Emendata a "Salmo irideus" da Günther 1866:119. Località tipo: torrente San Leandro, contea di Alameda, California, U.S.A. Tipo: nessuno. Sintipi: ?USNM 594 (1), ?USNM 228615 (2).

Salmo gairdnerii irideus Gibbons, 1855. The Pacific v. 4 (no. 17) [2] col. 6. Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida, vedere sopra.

Salmo gairdneri irideus Gibbons, 1855. The Pacific v. 4 (no. 17) [2] col. 6. Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida, vedere sopra.

Trutta iridea (Gibbons, 1855). The Pacific v. 4 (no. 17) [2] col. 6. Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida, vedere sopra.

Salmo irideus Gibbons, 1855. The Pacific v. 4 (no. 17) [2] col. 6. Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida, emendamento di Salmo iridea, vedere sopra.

Salmo rivularis Ayres 1855. [Description of new fishes from California.] (Minutes of Academy meetings were printed in "The Pacific" (a newspaper) shortly after each meeting. New species date to publication in The Pacific. Dates of publication are given in each species account). The Pacific; v. 4 (no. 20) [2] col. 4. Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida. Opinioni: sinonimo di "Salmo gairdnerii" Richardson 1836, secondo i primi autori; sinonimo di "Oncorhynchus mykiss" (Walbaum 1792), per Walbaum 1792). Località tipo: a poche miglia da Martinez, vicino alle pendici di Mount Diablo, Caifornia, U.S.A. Tipo: non è noto nessun esemplare tipo.

Salmo truncatus Suckley 1859. Descriptions of several new species of Salmonidae, from the North-West Coast of America. Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist. N. Y. 1-10; v. 7 3. Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida. Opinioni: sinonimo di "Salmo gairdnerii" Richardson 1836, per La Rivers 1994:300, Scott & Crossman 1998:191 come "gairdneri"; adesso considerata come sinonimo di "Oncorhynchus mykiss" (Walbaum 1792). Località tipo: stretto Juan de Fuca, Nord America. Tipo: USNM 1134 (non ritrovato nel 1980).

Salmo masoni Suckley 1860. Report upon the fishes collected on the survey. Route near the forth-seventh and forth-ninth parallels, explored by I. I. Stevens, ..., in 1853-'55. Zoology Report No. 5. [Pls. 1, 11, 15-16, 19-20, 32-33, 42-45, 50-51, 55, 60, 63, 67, 69, 72, 76] Railroad Survey, 47th and 49th Parallels 307-368; v. 12 (Book 2) (pt 3) 345. Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida. Opinioni: sinonimo di "Salmo gairdnerii" Richardson 1836, per La Rivers 1994:300, Scott & Crossman 1998:191 come "gairdneri"; sinonimo "Oncorhynchus gairdnerii" (Richardson 1836), per gli autori correnti. Basata su "Fario clarkii" di Girard 1856:219 e 1858:314 (non di Richardson). Località tipo: fiume Columbia a Fort Dalles; fiume Catlapootl; Nord America. Tipo: non è noto nessun esemplare tipo.

Oncorhynchus kamloops Jordan 1892. Description of a new species of salmon. "Oncorhynchus kamloops", from the lakes of British Columbia. Forest and Stream 405-406; v. 39 (no. 19) 405. Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida. Opinioni: sinonimo di "Salmo gairdnerii" Richardson 1836, ma valida sottospecie, per La Rivers 1994:300; sinonimo di "Oncorhynchus mykiss" (Walbaum 1792), sottospecie "gairdnerii" (Richardson 1836), secondo Behnke 1992:177 come "gairdneri"; sinonimo di "Salmo gairdnerii" Richardson 1836, secondo Scott & Crossman 1998:191 come "gairdneri"; sinonimo di "Oncorhynchus mykiss" (Walbaum 1792), per Sigler & Sigler 1996:177. Catalogo: Böhlke 1953:14. Comparsa come "Salmo kamloops" in un articolo poco prima della descrizione. Compare anche come "Salmo kamloops" in Jordan 1892:60, Fig., con un testo molto simile. Località tipo: lago Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada. Tipo: USNM 44238. Paratipi: SU 10803 (1).

Salmo kamloops (Jordan, 1892). Forest and Stream v. 39 (no. 19) 405. Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida, vedere sopra.

Salmo rivularis kamloops (Jordan, 1892). Forest and Stream v. 39 (no. 19) 405. Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida, vedere sopra.

Salmo gairdneri shasta Jordan, 1894. Descriptions of new varieties of trout. Bienn. Rep. St. Bd. Fish Comm. St. Calif. 142-143; 142 Pl. Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida. Opinioni: sinonimo di "Salmo gairdnerii" Richardson 1836, per Smith 1986:228; sinonimo di "Oncorhynchus mykiss" (Walbaum 1792), sottospecie "gairdnerii" (Richardson 1836), secondo gli autori correnti. Catalogo: Böhlke 1953:15. Lectotipo stabilito in Jordan & Evermann 1896:502 [ref. 2443]. Località tipo: California, U.S.A. Tipo: SU 10903 [non SU 903 come pubblicato]. Paralectotipi: SU 4748 (4).

Salmo gilberti Jordan 1894. Bienn. Rep. St. Bd. Fish Comm. St. Calif. (1893-1894) 143 Pl. Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida. Opinioni: sinonimo di "Oncorhynchus mykiss" (Walbaum 1792), ma valida sottospecie come da descrizione, per Behnke 1992:191, Fuller et al. 1999:250, Moyle 2002:272. Catalogo: Böhlke 1953:15. Lectotipo stabilito in Jordan & Evermann 1896:502 come SU 11511 ma apparentemente errato, vedere Böhlke 1953:15. Località tipo: ramo meridionale del fiume Kern, California, U.S.A. Tipo: SU 11511. Paralectotipi: SU 11509 (1). Non-tipi: MCZ 29063 (1).

Salmo nelsoni Evermann 1908. Descriptions of a new species of trout (*Salmo nelsoni*) and a new cyprinodont (*Fundulus meeki*) with notes on other fishes from Lower California. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 19-30; v. 21 26 Pl. 1. Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida. Opinioni: sinonimo di "Oncorhynchus mykiss" (Walbaum 1792), ma valida sottospecie, per Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:30, Behnke 1992:195 con commenti, Ruiz-Campos et al. 1997:74, Ruiz-Campos et al. 2000:68. Località tipo: Río San Ramon, San Pedro Martir Mountains, 35 miglia a nord est di Port San Quintin, Baja California, Mexico. Tipo: USNM 61056. Paratipi: (8) AMNH (1, non trovato o non comunicato), FMNH (1, trovato o non comunicato), IU (1), MCZ (1), SU (1, non trovato o non comunicato), U.S. Bur. Fish. 1620 (1); UMMZ 157681 (1); ? USNM 61057 (1), 76406 (3) ?76407 (1).

Oncorhynchus mykiss nelsoni Evermann, 1908. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. v. 21 26 Pl. 1. Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida, vedere sopra.

Salmo irideus argentatus Bajkov 1927. Reports of the Jasper Park Lakes Investigations, 1925-26. I. The fishes. Contrib. Can. Biol. Fish. (N. S.) 379-403; v. 3 (no. 16) 388 [12] Fig. 4B; Pl. 1 (fig. a). Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida. Opinioni: sinonimo di "Salmo gairdnerii" Richardson 1836, per Scott & Crossman 1998:191 come "gairdneri". località tipo: Lago Buffalo Prairie, Lago Caledonia e fiume Athabasca, Alberta, Canada. Tipo: attuale collocazione ignota. Paratipi: UMMZ 80841 (1).

Salmo kamloops whitehousei Dymond 1931. Description of two new forms of British Columbia trout. Contrib. Can. Biol. Fish. (N. S.) 393-395; v. 6 (no. 16) 393 [3]. Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida. Opinioni: sinonimo di "Salmo gairdnerii" Richardson 1836, per Scott & Crossman 1998:191 come "gairdneri". Adesso considerata sinonimo di "Oncorhynchus mykiss" (Walbaum 1792). Località tipo: lago Six-mile vicino a Nelson, British Columbia, Canada. Tipo: ROM 6053. Paratipi: (19) UMMZ 9545 (1).

 

 

Fonti bibliografiche principali - Porcellotti, S., 2005. Pesci d'Italia, ittiofauna delle acque dolci. Casa Editrice Plan, Firenze. Pagina 106.

Gall, G.A.E. and P.A. Crandell, 1992. The rainbow trout. Aquaculture 100:1-10.

 

 

Distribuzione originaria di Oncorhynchus mykiss secondo Fishbase

 

 

L'areale originario della specie è il nord est dell'Oceano Pacifico, la penisola della Kamchatka ed è stata segnalata dalle isole Commander e, sporadicamente, nel Mare di Okhotsk ed a sud della bocca del fiume Amur. Le forme marine rappresentano gli stock migratori detti trote steelhead (penshinensis). La specie è stata introdotta a scopo alieutico ed alimentare, in quasi tutto il pianeta. In molti paesi dove si è acclimatata, ha causato gravi squilibri ecologici. in Italia le prime introduzioni datano dal 1895.

 

 

Introduzioni di Oncorhynchus mykiss
Periodo Provenienza Paese ospite Acclimatazione

1900 - 1924

Repubblica Ceca

Slovacchia

si

1950 - 1974

Germania

Siria

no

1950 - 1974

ignota

Albania

probabile

non conosciuto

ignota

Kyrgyzstan

si

non conosciuto

Costarica

Honduras

si

non conosciuto

Gran Bretagna

Guyana

non probabile

non conosciuto

ignota

Madera

si

non conosciuto

ignota

Tahiti

no

non conosciuto

ignota

Afghanistan

si

non conosciuto

ignota

Eritrea

si

non conosciuto

Sud Africa

Lesotho

probabile

non conosciuto

ignota

Lettonia

si

non conosciuto

Germania

Camerun

ignota

non conosciuto

ignota

Uganda

ignota

non conosciuto

ignota

Is. Azzorre

si

non conosciuto

Zimbabwe

Mozambico

ignota

non conosciuto

ignota

Ucraina

ignota

non conosciuto

ignota

Lituania

si

1900 - 1910

USA

Irlanda

probabile

1900 - 1910

Inghilterra

Irlanda

probabile

1918 - 1928

USA

Pakistan

si

1918 - 1928

Giappone

Pakistan

si

1900 - 1910

Danimarca

Norvegia

non probabile

1930 - 1939

Svizzera

Israele

si

1960 - 1969

Europa

Iran

si

1976 - 1979

ignota

Uzbekistan

si

1890 - 1899

Germania

Polonia

non probabile

1890 - 1899

Francia

Spagna

probabile

1964 - 1966

ex Cecoslovacchia

Kazakhstan

si

1877

USA

Giappone

si

1877

USA (California)

Nuova Zelanda

si

1879

USA

Francia

si

1882

USA

Polonia

non probabile

1882

USA

Belgio

non probabile

1882

USA

Germania

si

1882

Germania

Svizzera

si

1884

USA

Gran Bretagna

si

1885

USA

Ungheria

si

1885

Germania

Austria

si

1885

Ungheria

Romania

si

1889

Gran Bretagna

Sri Lanka

si

1890

Germania

URSS

si

1891

Germania

Repubblica Ceca

si

1891

Germania

Slovacchia

si

1891

Germania

Svezia

probabile

1891

USA

Jugoslavia

si

1894

Nuova Zelanda

Australia

si

1894

Germania

Danimarca

si

1895

USA

Italia

si

1896

USA

Estonia

non probabile

1896

Russia

Estonia

non probabile

1896

Germania

Estonia

non probabile

1897

USA

Finlandia

non probabile

1897

Danimarca

Finlandia

non probabile

1897

Germania

Finlandia

non probabile

1897

Gran Bretagna

Sud Africa

si

1897

Svezia

Finlandia

non probabile

1897

Germania

Bulgaria

probabile

1898

ignota

Olanda

probabile

1900

ignota

Liechtenstein

non probabile

1904

USA

Argentina

si

1905

Germania

Cile

si

1905

Sud Africa

Kenya

si

1906

Inghilterra

Malawi

si

1906

Gran Bretagna

India

probabile

1906

Sri Lanka

India

probabile

1906

Nuova Zelanda

India

probabile

1906

Germania

India

probabile

1908

Sud Africa

Swaziland

probabile

1909

USA

Portogallo

si

1910

Sud Africa

Zinbabwe

si

1913

Gran Bretagna

Brasile

probabile

1920

USA (Oregon)

Hawaii

si

1922

Francia

Madagscar

si

1925

Francia

Marocco

probabile

1925

Svizzera

Marocco

probabile

1925

USA

Panama

si

1926

USA

Colombia

non probabile

1927

Scozia

Tanzania

probabile

1927

USA

Perù

si

1928

USA

Ecuador

probabile

1929

Olanda

Indonesia

no

1934

Sud Africa

Mauritius

no

1934

USA

Venezuela

probabile

1934

USA

Portorico

non probabile

1935

Gran Bretagna

Malesia

non probabile

1935

Scozia

Malesia

non probabile

1935

Nuova Zelanda

Malesia

non probabile

1940

Madagascar

Reunion

si

1940

Sud Africa

Congo

non probabile

1942

USA

Bolivia

si

1942

Cile

Bolivia

si

1942

Sud Africa

Zambia

no

1946

Danimarca

Lussemburgo

probabile

1947

Kenya

Sudan

probabile

1950

Svizzera

Grecia

probabile

1951

Danimarca

Islanda

no

1952

Nuova Zelanda

Papua Nuova Guinea

si

1954

USA

Costarica

si

1957

Argentina

Uruguay

no

1957

Giappone

Taiwan

probabile

1959

Nord Corea

Cina

non probabile

1960

Danimarca

Libano

no

1964

Libano

Siria

no

1965

USA

Corea

no

1966

Jugoslavia

Giordania

si

1967

Kenya

Etiopia

si

1967

Francia

Tunisia

no

1968

ignota

Iraq

no

1969

USA

Cipro

non probabile

1969

ignota

Turchia

si

1971

India

Nepal

probabile

1973

Canada

Tailandia

no

1974

ignota

Penisola di Kola

si

1982

USA

Guatemala

ignota

1985

USA

Rep. Domenicana

si

 

 

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