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Le Faune Webmuseum Amphibia Anura Bufonidae Pseudepidalea

Il rospo smeraldino, Pseudepidalea viridis (Laurenti, 1768)


Nomi comuni esteri - Spagnolo - Sapo verde. Catalano - Gripau verd. Francese - Crapaud vert. Inglese - Green Toad. Tedesco - Wechselkröte. Svezia - Grönfläckig padda. Norvegia - Grønnflekket padde. Finlandia - Viherkonna. Danimarca - Grønbroget tudse. Olanda - groene pad. Grecia - Πρασινόφρυνος, Ζάμπα, Πράσινος Φρύνος. Croazia - Zelena krastača. Serbia - Zelena krastava žaba, Zelena krastača. Slovenia - Zelena krastača. Macedonia (FYROM) - Зелена крастава жаба. Polonia - Ropucha zielona. Ungheria - Zöld varangy. Repubblica Ceca - Ropucha zelená. Slovacchia - Ropucha zelena. Albania - Thithëlopa e gjelbër. Romania - Broasca raioasa verde. Turchia - Gece kurbağası. Bulgaria - Зелена крастава жаба.

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Classificazione - Regno: Animalia. Sottoregno: Eumetazoa. Phylum: Chordata. Subphylum: Vertebrata. Superclasse: Gnathostomata. Classe: Amphibia. Sottoclasse: Lissamphibia. Ordine: Anura. Sottordine: Procoela. Famiglia: Bufonidae. Genere: Bufo.

Bufo viridis Laurenti, 1768, Spec. Med. Exhib. Synops. Rept.: 27. Materiale tipo: include il rospo raffigurato in pl. 1, fig. 1 della pubblicazione originale. Località tipo: "inter fissuras, seu cavernas murorum obscuras Viennae", Austria.
Rana sitibunda Pallas, 1771, Reise Vers. Prov. Russ. Reich, 1: 458. Materiale tipo: non specificato, collocazione sconosciuta, probabilmente disperso. Località tipo: "In desertis siccis ad Iaicum" (= nel deserto ascitto a Jaico [= Yaik], Russia); ristretta da Mertens & Wermuth, 1960, Amph. Rept. Europas: 48, a "Vorposten Tschanganskoi, Jaikische Steppen" ["avamposto Tschanganskoi, speppe di Yaik (= Ural)"]. Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 251, da come località tipo "colonia Chaganskoi, fiume Ural (Yaik), monti Urali meridionali, Russia". Sinonimo di Lacépède, 1788, Hist. Nat. Quadrup. Ovip. Serpens, 16mo ed., 2: 353; Lacépède, 1788, Hist. Nat. Quadrup. Ovip. Serpens, Quarto ed., 1: 586; Daudin, 1803 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Gen. Part. Rept., 8: 156; (con Rana variabilis) per Merrem, 1820, Tent. Syst. Amph.: 180, & Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 88; & Eichwald, 1842, Nouv. Mem. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, 7: 159; con Bufo viridis secondo Duméril & Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 682; Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 58; Stöck, Günther, & Böhme, 2001, Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkd. Dresden, 51: 259, hanno discusso la rilevanza di questo nome nei taxa asiatici dei sottogruppi di Bufo viridis.
Buffo viridis Lacépède, 1788, Hist. Nat. Quadrup. Ovip. Serpens, 16mo ed., 2: 353, 460. Lacépède, 1788, Hist. Nat. Quadrup. Ovip. Serpens, Quarto ed., 1: Tavola successiva a p. 618. Respinto come lavoro non binomiale dall'Opinione 2104, Anonymous, 2005, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 62: 55.
Buffo viridi-radiatus Lacépède, 1788, Hist. Nat. Quadrup. Ovip. Serpens, 16mo ed., 2: 355, 460. Lacépède, 1788, Hist. Nat. Quadrup. Ovip. Serpens, Quarto ed., 1: Tavola successiva a p. 618, con descrizione a p. 588. Sostituzione di nome per Bufo schreberianus Laurenti, 1768. Respinto come lavoro non binomiale dall'Opinion 2104, Anonymous, 2005, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 62: 55. Sinonimo di Bonaparte, 1835, Iconograph. Fauna Ital., 2(Fasc. 14): non numerato; Fatio, 1872, Fauna Vert. Suisse, 3: 411.
Rana viridis Lindaker, 1791, Neuere Abh. Böhm. Ges. Wiss., 1: 111.
Bufo viridis Schneider, 1799, Hist. Amph. Nat.: 200.
Bufo sitibundus Schneider, 1799, Hist. Amph. Nat.: 225.
Bufo cursor Daudin, 1803 (An. XI), Hist. Nat. Gen. Part. Rept., 8: 164. Materiale tipo: inlude lo specimen raffigurato da Lepekhin, 1774, Tagebuch Reise Verschiedene Provinz. Russ. Reiches, 1: 318, pl. xxii, fig. 6; reprinted by Stöck, Günther, & Böhme, 2001, Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkd. Dresden, 51: 261. Località tipo: "les steppes du Pérémiot près de l'Iaïk", Russia, precisamente presso Guryev (47° 07´N; 41° 56´ E); "near colonia Peremetnoe, Provincia di Uralsk, Kazakhstan" secondo Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 251. in sinonimia con Bufo calamita di Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 141; Boulenger, 1881 "1880", Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1880: 547; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 294, anche se l'area di distribuzione di Bufo calamita non raggiunge la località tipoocalità tipo; vedere Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 480. Considerato nomen dubium, sembra strettamente correlato a Bufo viridis di Stöck, Günther, & Böhme, 2001, Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkd. Dresden, 51: 260-261.
Rana picta Pallas, 1814 "1831", Zoograph. Rosso-Asiat. Sist. Omn. Animal.: 9. Materiale tipo: non riportato. Località tipo: Catharinoslaw [adesso = Dnepropetrovsk], Ucraina. Sinonimo di Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 138 (sotto Bufo variabilis). In sinonimia con Bufo viridis di Nikolskii, 1918, Fauna Rossii, Zemnovodnye: 99. Considerata sinonimia provvisoria di Dürigen, 1897, Deutschl. Amph. Rept.: 494, vedere discussione di Kuzmin, 1996, Adv. Amph. Res. Former Soviet Union, 1: 49.
Bufo schreberi Oken, 1816, Lehrb. Naturgesch., 3(2): 208. Compitazione susseguente errata. Nome non disponibile secondo l'Opinione 417 (Anonymous, 1956, Opin. Declar. Internatl. Comm. Zool. Nomencl., 14: 1-42).
Bufo roseus Merrem, 1820, Tent. Syst. Amph.: 183. Materiale tipo: basato sul rospo descritto da "Meyer, Thiere m. Skel., I. S. 35. t. 53". Località tipo: "Germaniae aquis". Sinonimo di Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 138 (sotto Bufo variabilis).
Bufo variabilis Merrem, 1820, Tent. Syst. Amph.: 180. Leunis, 1844, Synops. Drei Naturr., Zool., Ed. 1: 147.
Bufo variabilis var. sitibunda Eichwald, 1831, Zool. Special.: 167.
Bufo variabilis var. crucigera Eichwald, 1831, Zool. Special.: 167. Materiale tipo: non riportato. Località tipo: "in plateis Astrachani oppidi vespere circumsaltitans"; dato come "città di Astrakhan, Russia", da Kuzmin & Maslova, 2003, Adv. Amph. Res. Former Soviet Union, 8: 255. Sinonimo di Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 138 (sotto Bufo variabilis); Camerano, 1884 "1883", Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 35: 233.
Bufo pictus Dvigubsky, 1832, Opyt Estestvennoi Istorii Gady: 35.
Bufo longipes Bonaparte, 1840, Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 2: 449. Materiale tipo: non riportato. Località tipo: "Dalmazia". Nome creato in sinonimia di Bufo viridis ed in alternativa possibile varietà di Bufo viridis, con nome attribuito a Fitzinger, presumibilmente sulla base di un'etichetta di un vaso o nome manoscritto. Sinonimo di Boulenger, 1898, Tailless Batr. Eur., 2: 228.
Bufo persicus Steindachner, 1867, Reise Österreichischen Fregatte Novara, Zool.: 40. Nome creato in sinonimia di Bufo viridis ed attribuito a Fitzinger. Presumibilmente sulla base di alcuni specimen di Pseudepidalea variabilis (DRF).
Bufo viridis var. lineata Ninni, 1879, Atti Ist. R. Venet. Sci. Lett., Ser. 5, 5: 973. Sintipi: "collezione zoologica del civico Museo di Venezia" (= MVEN). Località tipo: "vicino a Venezia", Italia.
Bufo viridis var. crucigera Camerano, 1884 "1883", Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 35: 233.
Bufo viridis var. concolor Camerano, 1884 "1883", Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 35: 234. Materiale tipo: MZUT. Località tipo: "Piemonte", Italia.
Bufo viridis viridis Mertens, 1926, Senckenb. Biol., 8: 258.
Bufo viridis var. raseus Pavlov, 1933, Publ. Mus. Hoang Ho Pai Ho, Tien-Tsin, 23: 6. Probabilmente compitazione susseguente errata di Bufo roseus, ma anche ascritto erroneamente a "Camerans" (simile a Camerano DRF).
Pseudepidalea viridis Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, & Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 365.

Fonti bibliografiche principali - Martinez Rica, J. P.,Maurin, H., Oliveira, M. E., Sofianidou, T. S., Vaith, M., and Zuiderwijk, A. (1997). Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles in Europe. Societas Europaea Herpetologica and Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris.

 

Distribuzione di Pseudepidalea viridis secondo IUCN

 

Specie presente in larga parte d'Europa, Svezia meridionale inclusa, ad eccezione del resto della Scandinavia, Isole Britanniche, Penisola Iberica ed i paesi ad ovest del Reno. La sua area di distribuzione raggiunge ad est Kazakhstan, Kyrgystan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan (e probabilmente parte dell'Afghanistan). In Russia si incontra fino alla catena dell'Altai mountains e probabilmente nel nord ovest della Mongolia. Il rospo smeraldino è stato introdotto nelle isole Baleari, mentre è autoctono in Corsica, Sardegna, Sicilia, Malta, Cipro, Creta ed alcune altre isole dell'Egeo. Esistono popolazioni frammentate su gran parte del nord Africa, dal Sahara occidentale all'Egitto. La sua presenza in Chad, Mali, Niger e Mauritania deve essere confermata. Altre popolazioni frammentate sono presenti in Turchia, Iran, Iraq, Siria, Libano, Giordania ed Israele. Le popolazioni israeliane sono in espanzione grazie all'incremento dell'irrigazione nelle zone aride. Una popolazione relitta è presente nel sud ovest dell'Arabia Saudita. Le popolazioni segnalate in Cina (Xinjiang) vengono attualmente assegnate alla specie Bufo pewzowi. La specie si incontra da -400 metri di quota(Mar Morto) fino ad oltre 4.500.

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