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Il rospo calamita, Epidalea calamita (Laurenti, 1768)


Nomi comuni esteri - Spagnolo - Sapo corredor. Catalano - Gripau corredor, Gripau ratllat. Basco - Apo lasterkaria. Galiziano - Sapo corriqueiro. Francese - Crapaud calamite. Portoghese - Sapo-corredor. Inglese - Natterjack Toad, Natterjack. Gaelico - Buaf. Tedesco - Kreuzkröte. Svezia - Strandpadda. Norvegia - Strandpadde. Finlandia - Haisukonna. Danimarca - Strandtudse. Olanda - Rugstreeppad, Heidefroask. Polonia - Ropucha paskówka. Ungheria - Nádi varangy. Repubblica Ceca - Ropucha krátkonohá. Slovacchia - Ropucha krátkonohá.

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Classificazione scientifica - Regno: Animalia. Sottoregno: Eumetazoa. Phylum: Chordata. Subphylum: Vertebrata. Superclasse: Gnathostomata. Classe: Amphibia. Sottoclasse: Lissamphibia. Ordine: Anura. Sottordine: Procoela. Famiglia: Bufonidae. Genere: Bufo.

Bufo calamita Laurenti, 1768, Spec. Med. Exhib. Synops. Rept.: 27, 119. Materiale tipo: include i rospi illustrati da Roesel von Rosenhof, 1758, Hist. Nat. Ran. Nost.: pl. 24. Località tipo: "in variis latebris terrae rimis, murorum cavis, ac foraminibus"; ristretta a "Mitteldeutschland" (= Germania centrale) da Mertens & Müller, 1928, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 41: 18; ristretta a "Nürnberg", Germania, da Mertens & Müller, 1940, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 451: 17.
Rana foetidissima Hermann, 1783, Tab. Aff. Animal. Acad. Spec.: 260. Materiale tipo: non riportato o conosciuto. Località tipo: non riportata. Sinonimo di Oken, 1816, Lehrb. Naturgesch., 3(2): 209; Schinz, 1822, Thierr. Naturgesch., 2: 171; Bonaparte, 1835, Iconograph. Fauna Ital., 2(Fasc. 14): non numerato; Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 88; Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 57 (non menzionato dal Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2, ); Boulenger, 1898, Tailless Batr. Eur., 2, . Note: nella pubblicazione originale non è chiaro se "Ranae foetidissimae" sia qualcosa di più che una generalizzazione vernacolare o la creazione di un nuovo nome DRF.
Rana portentosa Blumenbach, 1788, Handb. Naturgesch., Ed. 3: 262. Sostituzione di nome per Bufo calamita. Sinonimo di Retzius, 1800, Fauna Svec., ed. 3, 1: 284; Oken, 1816, Lehrb. Naturgesch., 3(2): 209; Schinz, 1822, Thierr. Naturgesch., 2: 171; Bonaparte, 1835, Iconograph. Fauna Ital., 2(Fasc. 14): non numerato; Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 88; Bonaparte, 1840, Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 2: 448; Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 57; Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 141; (non menzionato dal Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2, ); Boulenger, 1898, Tailless Batr. Eur., 2: 236.
Rana ecaudata Razoumovsky, 1789, Hist. Nat. Jorat, 1: 281. Materiale tipo: non riportato o conosciuto. Località tipo: "environs de Crissier", Svizzera. Sinonimo di Fatio, 1872, Fauna Vert. Suisse, 3: 402.
Bufo cruciatus Schneider, 1799, Hist. Amph. Nat.: 193. Materiale tipo: specimen raffigurato da Roesel von Rosenhof, 1758, Hist. Nat. Ran. Nost.: 106, pl. 24. Località tipo: "Germania". Sinonimo di Daudin, 1802 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Rain. Gren. Crap., Quarto: 77; Daudin, 1803 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Gen. Part. Rept., 8: 153; Schinz, 1822, Thierr. Naturgesch., 2: 171; Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 88; Bonaparte, 1840, Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 2: 448; Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 57; Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 141; Boulenger, 1881 "1880", Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1880: 547; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 294.
Rana mephitica Shaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 143. Materiale tipo: basato in parte sullo specimen raffigurato da Roesel von Rosenhof, 1758, Hist. Nat. Ran. Nost.: 106, pl. 24, fig. 1. Località tipo: "Germany". Sinonimo di Gravenhorst, 1807, Vergleich. Uebersicht Linn. Neuern Zool. Syst.: 435; Schinz, 1822, Thierr. Naturgesch., 2: 171; Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 88; Bonaparte, 1840, Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 2: 448; Duméril & Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 681; Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 141; Boulenger, 1898, Tailless Batr. Eur., 2: 236.
Bufo portentosa Leunis, 1844, Synops. Drei Naturr., Zool., Ed. 1: 147.
Epidalea calamita Cope, 1864, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 16: 181. Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, & Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 365.
Bufo calamita var. alpestris Koch, 1872, Ber. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 1871-72: 169. Materiale tipo: non menzionato, probabilmente presente in origine al SMF. Località tipo: "dieselbe bei Dillenburg und Herborn, vereinzelt an höheren trockenen Bergen der Lahngegend", Germania.
Bufo viridis var. calamita Camerano, 1884 "1883", Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 35: 233.

Fonti bibliografiche principali - Arnold, E. N. 2003. Reptiles and Amphibians of Europe. Princeton University Press, Princeton and Oxford.

 

Distribuzione di Epidalea calamita secondo IUCN

 

La specie è diffusa nel sud ovest e nord dell'Europa, dalla Penisola Iberica a nord fino alla Danimarca ed all'estremo meridionale della Svezia, a est raggiunge l'Ucraina nord occidentale, la Bielorussia, l'Estonia occidentale e la Lettonia. Esistono popolazioni isolate dell'Irlanda sud occidentale ed in alcune zone della Gran Bretagna. E. calamita si incontra dal livello del mare fino a circa 2.,540 m di quota (in Spagna).

Bibliografia - Andrén, C. and Nilson, G. 1985. Breeding pool characteristics and reproduction in an island population of natterjack toads, Bufo calamita Laur, at the Swedish west coast. Amphibia-Reptilia 6: 137-142.

Arnold, E.N. 2003. Reptiles and Amphibians of Europe. Princeton University Press, Princeton and Oxford.

Arnold, H.R. 1995. Atlas of amphibians and reptiles in Britain. ITE research publication 10: 40.

Banks, B., Beebee, T.J.C. and Cooke, A.S. 1994. Conservation of the Natterjack Toad Bufo calamita in Britain over the period 1970-1990 in relation to site protection and other factors. Biological Conservation 67(2): 111-118.

Banks, B., Beebee, T.J.C. and Denton, J.S. 1993. Long-term management of a natterjacktoad (Bufo calamita) population in southern Britain. Amphibia-Reptilia 14(2): 155-168.

Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S. and Rustamov, A. K. (1971). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchienya SSSR [Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR]. Izdatelistvo Misl, Moscow.

Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S., Ishchenko, V. G., Rustamov, A. K., and Szczerbak, N. N. (1977). Opredelitel Zemnovodnykh i Presmykayushchikhsya Fauny SSSR [Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR Fauna]. Prosveshchenie, Moscow .

Beebee, T. J. C. (1983). The Natterjack Toad. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Beebee, T.J.C., Fleming, L.V. and Race, D. 1993. Characteristics of Natterjack Toad (Bufo calamita) Breeding Sites on a Scottish Saltmarsh. Herpetological Journal 3(2): 68-69.

Benavides, J., Viedma, A., Clivilles, J., Ortíz, A., and Gutiérrez, J.M. 2001. Cotas máximas para la península ibérica de siete especies de herpetos en la provincia de Granada. Boletín de la Asociación Herpetológica Española 12(1): 10-11.

Berzins, A. 1995. The influence of climatic conditions on the distribution of the Natterjack Toad (Bufo calamita) in Estonia, Latvia and Belarus. Memoranda Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Fennica 71: 143-154.

Denton, J.S. and Beebee, T.J.C. 1993. Summer and Winter Refugia of Natterjacks (Bufo calamita) and Common Toads (Bufo bufo) in Britain. Herpetological Journal 3(3): 90-94.

Denton, J.S. and Beebee, T.J.C. 1996. Habitat occupancy by juvenile natterjack toads (Bufo calamita) on grazed and ungrazed heathland. Herpetological Journal 6(2): 49-52.

Denton, J.S., Hitchings, S.P., Beebee, T.J. and Gent, A. 1997. A recovery program for the natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) in Britain. Conservation Biology 11: 1329-1338.

Ernits, P. 1993. Natterjack toad (Bufo calamita Laur.) on the islands and the shore of the Gulf of Riga. Eesti Looduseuuri ate Seltsi Aastaraamat 73: 153-176.

Fernández-Martínez, R. 2000. Bufo calamita (Sapo Corredor), Observaciones en el suroeste de Asturias. Boletín de la Asociación Herpetológica Española 11(1): 25.

Fog, K. 1995. Amphibian conservation in Denmark. FrogLog 13: 1-2.

García-París, M. and Martín, C. 1987. Amphibians of the Sierra del Guadarrama (1,800 - 2,430 m altitude). In: J. J. van Gelder, H. Strijbosch & P. J. Bergers (eds), Proceedings. 4th Ordinary General Meeting of the Societas Europaea Herpetologica, pp. 135-138.

Gasc, J. P. , Cabela, A., Crnobrnja-Isailovic, J., Dolmen, D., Grossenbacher,K., Haffner, P., Lescure, J., Martens, H., Martinez Rica, J. P.,Maurin, H., Oliveira, M. E., Sofianidou, T. S., Vaith, M., and Zuiderwijk, A. (1997). Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles in Europe. Societas Europaea Herpetologica and Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris.

Gasc, J. P. (ed.) 1997. Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles in Europe. Societas Europea Herpetologica & Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.

Godinho, R., Teixeira, J., Rebelo, R., Segurado, P., Loureiro, A., Álvares, F., Gomes, N., Cardoso, P., Camilo-Alves, C. and Brito, J.C. 1999. Atlas of the continental Portuguese herpetofauna: an assemblage of published and new data. Revista Española de Herpetología 13: 61-81.

Grosse, W.-R. (1994). ''Biologie und Okologie der Kreuzkrote.'' Berichte des Landesamtes amt für Umweltschutz Sachsen-Anhalt, 14, 1-95.

Grossenbacher, K. 1994. Rote Liste der gefährdeten Amphibien der Schweiz. In: BUWAL (ed.), Rote Liste der gefährdeten Tierarten in der Schweiz, pp. 33-34. BUWAL (Bundesamt für Umwelt, Wald und Landschaft), Bern.

Gruodis, S., Zaune, I. and Vilnitis, V. 1986. Present situation of the investigation of Running Toad (Bufo calamita Laur.) in the Eastern Baltics. In: Okhrana, Ekologiya i Etologiya Zhivotnykh: 73-96. Riga.

Joly, P. 1992. The amphibian fauna of the French Upper-Rhône floodplain. The Lavours marsh and Jons sector. Alytes 10(4): 117-129.

Korky, J. K. and Webb, R.G. (1999). ''Resurvey, Biogeography and Conservation of the Natterjack Toad Bufo Calamita Laurenti (Anura: Bufonidae) in the Republic of Ireland.'' Bull. Ir. biogeog. Soc., 23: 2-52.

Kuzmin, S. L. (1995). Die Amphibien Russlands und angrenzender Gebiete. Westarp Wissenschaften, Magdeburg.

Kuzmin, S. L. (1999). The Amphibians of the Former Soviet Union. Pensoft, Sofia-Moscow.

Kuzmin, S.L. 1996. Threatened amphibians in the former Soviet Union: the current situation and the main threats. Oryx 30: 24-30.

Kuzmin, S.L. Dodd Jr, C.K. and Pikulik, M.M. (eds) 1995. Amphibian Populations in the Commonwealth of Independent States: Current Status and Declines. Pensoft, Moscow.

Lizana, M. and Marco, A. 2001. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation and the decline of amphibian populations in Central Spain. FrogLog 44: 1-2.

Lizana, M., Pérez-Mellado, V. and Ciudad, M.J. 1990. Analysis of the structure of an amphibian community in the Central System of Spain. Herpetological Journal 1: 435-446.

Malkmus, R. 2004. Amphibians and reptiles of Portugal, Madeira and the Azores-Archipelago. A.R.G. Gantner Verlag K.G., Ruggel, Germany.

Martínez-Solano, I., Bosch, J. and García-París, M. 2003. Demographic trends and community stability in a montane amphibian assemblage. Conservation Biology 17(1): 238-244.

Masing, M. 1995. Monitoring of the natterjack toad, Bufo calamita, in Western Estonia. Memoranda Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Fennica 71(3-4): 152.

Miaud, C., Sanuy, D. and Avrillier, J.N. 2000. Terrestrial movements in an agricultural semi-arid landscape: the case of the natterjack toad Bufo calamita (Amphibia:Anura) in northeast Iberian peninsula. Amphibia-Reptilia 21: 357-369.

Mlynarski, M. 1966. Plazy I Gady Polski. Panstwowe Zaklady Wydawnictw Szkolnych, Warszawa 75.

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Pedraza, E.M. and Lizana, M. 1997. Toad Embryo Mortality: Abstract. FrogLog 21: 3.

Phillips, R.A., Patterson, D.A. and Shimmings, P. 2002. Increased use of ponds by breeding Natterjack Toads, Bufo calamita, following management. Herpetological Journal 12(2): 75-78.

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Pleguezuelos, J.M., Márquez, R. and Lizana, M. 2002. Atlas y Libro Rojo de los Anfibios y Reptiles de España. Dirección General de la Conservación de la naturaleza-Associación Herpetológica Española, Madrid.

Reques, R. 2000. Anfibios. Ecología y Conservación. Diputación de Córdoba, Córdoba.

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