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La lampreda di mare, Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus, 1758


Nomi dialettali italiani - Piemonte - Lampreiùn, Prelun. Liguria -  Sussa pèixe. Lombardia -  Zufflòt. Veneto - Lampredon. Friuli - Magna pegola. Marche - Succhiapasce, Magnapaisce. Campania, Calabria - Zucaprete, Sucapèce. Sicilia - Alàmpuia, Alampia, Zuccpisci. Puglia - Gianfrèta. Sardegna - Suga pixi.

Nomi comuni esteri - Spagna - Amprea, Amprega, Chucladit, Ferrêtimo, Lampardia, Lamprea de mar, Lamprea marina, Lampreia, Llamprea, Llampresa, Llampresa de mar, Pegatimôn, Xuclador. Portogallo - Lampreia do mar, Lampreia-do-mar, Lampreira marinha, Lampreira-marinha. Francese - Lamproie marine, Anguille musique, Grande lamproie, Lampré, Lampresa, Lamprez, Lamproia, Lamproie, Lamproie de mer, Lamproie marbrée, Lamprua, Sept-œil, Suce-pierre. Greco - Petromyzon. Inglese - Sea lamprey, Eel sucker, Great sea lamprey, Green lamprey, Green sea lamprey, Lamper, Lamprey, Marine lamprey, Nannie nine eyes, Nine eyes, Shad lamprey, Spotted lamprey, Stone sucker. Gaelico - An loimpre mhara. Tedesco - Meeresneunauge, Große lamprete, Großes neunauge, Neunaugenkönig, Seelamprete. Olanda - Zeeprik. Danimarca - Havlampret, Havniøje. Isole Faeroe - Kjølsúgari, Súgari, Súgvari. Svezia - Havsnejonöga. Norvegia - Havniøye. Islanda - Sæsteinsuga. Finlandia - Merinahkiainen. Polonia - Minóg morski. Russo - Morskaja minoga, Morskaya minoga. Romania - Chiscar de mare. Slovacchia - Mihule morská. Slovenia - Morski piskor, Morski piškur. Croazia - Morska paklara, Paklara. Serbia - Morska paklara. Madeira - Lampreia-marinha. Albanese - Kavall deti, Peshk kavall. Malta - Buwahhal, Qalfat, Sangisug. Turchia - Derebofa baligi.

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Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus, 1758. Systema Naturae, Ed. X. (Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata.) Holmiae. Systema Nat. ed. 10 i-ii + 1-824; v. 1 230. Status: nomenclatura originaria, valida. Opinioni: nomenclatura valida come "Petromyzon marinus" Linnaeus 1758, secondo Berg 1948:26, Vladykov 1973:2, Lee et al. 1980:35, Vladykov in Whitehead et al. 1984:67, Smith 1986:40, Robins & Ray 1986:14, Hardisty 1986:94, Lelek 1987:25, Scott & Scott 1988:6, McAllister 1990:27, Page & Burr 1991:14, Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:172, Cochran & Marks 1995:409, Mrakovcic et al. 1995:183, Chereshnev 1996:598, Bianco et al. 1996:54, Kottelat 1997:29, Murdy et al. 1997:21, Reshetnikov et al. 1997:725, Reshetnikov 1998:19, McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:36, Scott & Crossman 1998:69, Fuller et al. 1999:19, Lyons et al. 2000:46, Yamazaki & Goto 2000:8, Alexeev & Kudersky 2001:135, Bilecenoglu et al. 2002:172, Flescher & Martini in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:17 [ref. 26158], Moore et al. 2003:166 [ref. 27076], Hanel 2003:44 [ref. 27894], Nelson et al. 2004:48, Bailey et al. 2004:60, Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:21, Hanel & Lusk 2005:163, Scharpf 2005:6. Lectoipo designato da Kottelat 1997:29, indicando lo specimen illustrato da Gesner 1604:590 (specimen attualmente scomparso). Località tipo: Basilea, Svizzera, per informazioni sull'originale designazione della località del lectotipo: "in mari Europaeo". Tipo: specimen illustrato da Gesner, 1604: 590, scomparso.

Lampetra marina (Linnaeus, 1758). Systema Nat. ed. 10 v. 1 230. Status: nuova nomenclatura, non valida.

Petromyzon ruber La Cepède, 1800. Histoire naturelle des poissons. Hist. Nat. Poiss. i-lxiv + 1-632; v. 2 99, 100 Pl. 1 (fig. 2). Status: nomenclatura di discutibile validità. Opinioni: dubbio sinonimo di "Petromyzon marinus" Linnaeus 1758secondo Kottelat 1997:29. Località tipo: fiume Senna, Francia. Tipo: non è noto nessun esemplare tipo. 

Petromyzon lampetra Pallas, 1814. Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica, sistens omnium animalium in extenso Imperio Rossico et adjacentibus maribus observatorum recensionem, domicilia, mores et descriptiones anatomen atque icones plurimorum. 3 vols. [1811-1814]. Petropoli. Zool. Rosso-Asiatica i-vii + 1-428 + index (I-CXXV); v. 3 66. Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida. Opinioni: dubbio sinonimo di "Lethenteron japonicum" (Martens 1868) -- (Holcík 1986:196 [ref. 24819]). Synonym of "Petromyzon marinus" Linnaeus 1758, secondo Kottelat 1997:29. Lectoipo designato da Kottelat 1997:29, indicando lo specimen illustrato da Gesner 1604:590 (specimen attualmente scomparso). Località tipo: Basilea, Svizzera. Tipo: non è noto nessun esemplare tipo.

Petromyzon adriaticus Nardo, 1847. Ex Chiereghini. Sinonimia moderna delle specie registrate nell' opera intitolata: "Descrizione de' crostacei, de' testacei e de' pesci che abitanno le lagune e golfo veneto rappresentati in figure à chiaro-scuro ed a colori." Venezia. Sinonimia Moderna Chiereghini; col. 109. Status: nomenclatura di discutibile validità, non valida. Opinioni: nomenclatura diubbia per "Petromyzon marinus" Linnaeus 1758, secondo Kottelat 1997:29. Compare anche in Nardo 1860:86 ed in Ninni 1872:1. Località tipo: Quarnero (Kvarner), Croazia (stretto tra l'isola di Cres e l'Istria. Tipo: non è noto nessun esemplare tipo.

Petromyzon maculosus Gronow, 1854. Gronow in Gray 1854. Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow, now in the British Museum. London. Cat. Fish Gronow i-vii + 1-196; 2.  Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida. Opinioni: sinonimo di "Petromyzon marinus" Linnaeus 1758, secondo Vladykov 1973:2, Hardisty 1986:94, Kottelat 1997:29. Località tipo: "in fluminibus majoribus Angliae". Tipo: non è noto nessun esemplare tipo.

Petromyzon marinus dorsatus Wilder, 1883. In Jordan & Gilbert, 1883. Synopsis of the fishes of North America. Bull. U. S. Natl. Mus. i-liv + 1-1018; n° 16 869. Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida. Opinioni: sinonimo di "Petromyzon marinus" Linnaeus 1758, secondo Vladykov 1973:2, Smith 1986:42, Hardisty 1986:95, Kottelat 1997:29, Reshetnikov 1998:19, Scott & Crossman 1998:70. Località tipo: lago Cayuga, New York, USA. Tipo: nessuno. Sintipi: National Museum of Natural History, Washington, USA, USNM 31368 (3).

Ammocoetes bicolor Lesueur, 1818. Description of several species of chondropterygious fishes of North America, with their varieties. Trans. Am. Philos. Soc. 383-394; v. 1 386. Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida. Opinioni: sinonimo di "Petromyzon marinus" Linnaeus 1758, secondo Smith 1986:42, Hardisty 1986:94. Località tipo: fiume Connecticut , Northampton, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Tipo: non è noto nessun esemplare tipo.

Petromyzon (Bathymyzon) bairdii Gill, 1883. Diagnosis of new genera and species of deep-sea fish-like vertebrates. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 253-260; v. 6 (n° 380) 254. Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida. Opinioni: sinonimo di "Petromyzon marinus" Linnaeus 1758, secondo Vladykov 1973:2, Hardisty 1986:95. Località tipo Corrente del Golfo, al largo di Cape Cod, Massachusetts, U.S.A., 40°02'N, 68°50'30"W, Albatross sta. 2048, 547 fm. Tipo: USNM 33311.

Oceanomyzon wilsoni Fowler, 1908. Notes on lancelets and lampreys. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 461-466; v. 59 (per il 1907) 462 Fig. 1. Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida. Opinioni: sinonimo di "Petromyzon marinus" Linnaeus 1758, secondo Vladykov 1973:2, Hardisty 1986:95. Catalogo: Böhlke 1984:140. Località tipo: Oceano Atlantico. Tipo: ANSP 375.

Petromyzon americanus Lesueur, 1818. Description of several species of chondropterygious fishes of North America, with their varieties. Trans. Am. Philos. Soc. 383-394; v. 1 382. Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida. Opinioni: sinonimo di "Petromyzon marinus" Linnaeus 1758, secondo Smith 1986:42, Hardisty 1986:94. Località tipo: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Tipo: non è noto nessun esemplare tipo.

Petromyzon marinus unicolor Gage, 1928. The lampreys of New York State--Life history and economics. In: A biological survey of the Oswego River system. Supplement to seventeenth annual report, 1927, State of New York Conservation department, Albany. 248 pp., 12 pls., 7 maps. Oswego R. Biological Survey 158 - 191; 163 Fig 1; Pls. 1 - 2. Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida. Opinioni: sinonimo di "Petromyzon marinus" Linnaeus 1758, secondo Vladykov 1973:2, Hardisty 1986:95, Scott & Crossman 1998:70. Località tipo: Cayuga, Seneca, laghi Ontario ed Erie. Tipo: non è noto nessun esemplare tipo.

Petromyzon maximus Cuvier, 1816. Le Règne Animal distribué d'après son organisation pour servir de base à l'histoire naturelle des animaux et d'introduction à l'anatomie comparée. Les reptiles, les poissons, les mollusques et les annélides. Edition 1. Règne Animal (ed. 1) i-xviii + 1-532; v. 2 118. Errore di stampa per Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus 1758, nomenclatura non valida.

Petromyzon nigricans Lesueur, 1818. Description of several species of chondropterygious fishes of North America, with their varieties. Trans. Am. Philos. Soc. 383-394; v. 1 385. Status: sinonimo junior, nomenclatura non valida. Opinioni: sinonimo di "Petromyzon marinus" Linnaeus 1758, secondo Vladykov 1973:2, Hardisty 1986:94. Catalogo: Bertin 1939:65. Località tipo: Nord America. Tipo: nessuno. Sintipi: MNHN A-8039 (1).

Note sulla nomenclatura - Holcík (1986: 119, 198) considera che Petromyzon lampetra, Pallas (1814: 66), sia basato sulle specie L. japonicum e Caspiomyzon wagneri (Kessler, 1870). Se ciò fosse corretto, si sarebbe trovato un nome valido per una di queste specie. Attualmente P. lampetra è basato sui primi resoconti (Marsili, 1726: pl. 1 [Lampetra], Linnaeus, 1766: 394 [Petromyzon marinus], Bloch, 1784: 38 pl. 87 [Die Lamprete (Petromyzon marinus)], Pennant, 1776: vol. 3: 67 n. 27, pl. 8 [Sea-lamprey]). Questo nome apparentemente include due specie, come le specie danubiane di Marsili, che non sembrano essere conspecifiche con il materiale degli altri autori. Maurice Kottelat, al cui lavoro facciamo riferimento, restringe la scelta del nome a quello citato nel lavoro di Linneo (1766), questo è lo stesso testo della descrizione originale di Linneo (1758: 230) di Petromyzon marinus. Poiché nel lavoro non c'è materiale tipo per entrambe le specie, lo specimen illustrato da Gesner (1604: 590 [riferimento di pagina in Linnaeus, 1758]) vi è designato come lectotipo di P. marinus, Linnaeus, 1758 e di P. lampetra, Pallas, 1814; ciò designa P. lampetra come un sinonimo di P. marinus Linnaeus, 1758 e restringe la località tipo. Gesner afferma esplicitamente che lo specimen da lui illustrato è proveniente da Basel, in Svizzera. Il lectotipo è perduto (probabilmente non è stato ben preservato). Petromyzon maximus in Cuvier (1816: 118) è un errore di stampa per P. marinus, ma il nome è stato ripetuto per diversi secoli dagli autori francesi (e.g., Ogérien, 1863: 374, fig. 87).

Fonti bibliografiche principali - Hardisty, M. W., 1986. Petromyzon marinus (Linnaeus 1758). p. 94-116. In J. Holcík (ed.) The Freshwater fishes of Europe. Vol. 1, Part 1. Petromyzontiformes.

 

Distribuzione di Petromyzon marinus

 

Coste atlantiche dell'America del Nord, da Terranova fino alla Florida; Groenlandia meridionale, Islanda, coste atlantiche europee e africane, dal Mar Bianco al Marocco, Mediterraneo. In Italia la specie è autoctona, sembra poco frequente. S'incontrava frequentemente alle foci dei fiumi e nei loro corsi inferiori e medi, nelle lagune e in alcuni laghi (per esempio nel Garda, nel 1895 e nel 1927). Viveva dal livello del mare sino a 275 m di quota (fiume Po presso Saluzzo, nella seconda metà del XIX secolo), ma oggi non supera gli 80 m circa di altitudine.

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